Comment

07.04.17

Fear barriers to help-seeking in the UK

Source: NHE Mar/Apr 17

Jon Paxman, 2020health senior researcher, explains why reducing fear barriers may be essential to promoting timely help-seeking, improving health outcomes and supporting greater equity of healthcare within the NHS.

Those who work in the health service know well that not everyone agrees with the aphorism ‘knowledge is power’. Some people choose to remain ignorant about their health status in the belief that knowledge may, in fact, be disempowering. And yet the choice of timely or delayed response to symptoms, or indeed health check invitation, can mean the difference between good health (or the ability to live well with a condition) and permanent disability; in some cases, it can mean the difference between life and death. 

Our ‘The Fear of Finding Out: identifying psychological barriers to symptom presentation and diagnosis in the UK’ report, published in January, revealed that probably the most common barrier to help-seeking is failure to interpret or recognise the seriousness of symptoms. This has been noted as especially true for cancer. And for some, help-seeking avoidance in this context will be attributable to ‘worry about wasting the doctor’s time’. But another critical psychological reason for intentional information avoidance is the fear of finding out (FOFO). 

In the literature, fear barriers are perhaps most frequently described as ‘fear about what the doctor might find’, thus relating to diagnosis and outcomes. Such barriers include fear of learning about a serious or even terminal illness, fear of treatment, or fear of stigma or discrimination. 

But fear barriers extend further. A person may fear finding out due to the processes involved: they may fear the clinical environment, or an embarrassing or painful investigation. Another fear barrier for men is that of perceived threat to masculinity – the fear of appearing weak or not in control. This has been recognised in a government-sponsored FOFO campaign in Australia, specifically aimed at men in middle age. 

Adopting the acronym, we concluded that FOFO could be usefully employed to refer to a distinct subset of psychological barriers to help-seeking. In such a case, the subject has knowledge of a symptom, or has been invited to a screening or general health check, but wishes to remain ignorant out of fear of (i) the clinical environment, and/or (ii) clinical investigations, and/or (iii) diagnosis. Fears within one or more of these domains may of course interact with other psychological, environmental, experiential and logistical barriers to help-seeking. To what extent this happens is currently unknown, since few studies have captured robust, quantitative data on fear barriers, let alone barrier interrelationships. But while there is still much to understand, the literature does reveal some important, general findings on fear-based information avoidance. 

Firstly, concerning types of fear barriers to help-seeking, a rapid review revealed some 16 different fears in total, though not all of equal significance and relevance. Some fears clearly have stronger associations with particular symptoms or potential disease. Fear barriers include: 

  • Being physically examined
  • Clinical investigations
  • Stigma and/or discrimination
  • Appearing weak/not in control
  • Hospital environment
  • Treatment
  • Being pressured to make lifestyle changes
  • Sexual dysfunction post treatment 

40 Choose and Book patient with GP

Secondly, we sought to understand FOFO in ‘at-risk’ groups. In general, fear barriers may be more common among men, but evidence does not all point one way. Men appear to endure symptoms for longer before seeking medical help, and also report higher levels of embarrassment during or in relation to medical appointments. 

Investigating life stages, FOFO appears to be a more pressing issue for those in middle age. With middle age comes higher risk of cancer, stroke, kidney disease, heart disease, type 2 diabetes and dementia. Further, 77% of men and 63% of women in middle age are overweight or obese, and diabetes rates have doubled amongst this group in the last 20 years. People with unhealthy lifestyles, including heavy drinkers and smokers, have a greater propensity towards help-seeking delay, and fear barriers – particularly fear of being pressured to make lifestyle changes – are known to contribute to this behaviour. 

Whether fear-based avoidance behaviour is higher or lower among ethnic minorities in the UK is little researched. But this could be an important line of enquiry in mental health in particular, considering ethnic minorities as a whole are less likely to receive treatment, with black adults having the lowest treatment rate of all.  

Socioeconomic status 

Another important consideration for FOFO at-risk groups is socioeconomic status. Indeed, there is evidence that various socio-demographic factors may have direct links to both diminished health status and fear barriers. For example, low educational attainment has been associated with both poorer health status as well as fear-based delay to help-seeking. Thus, a potential interrelationship of factors may see a bi-directional exacerbation of health inequalities. 

In terms of fear-barrier risk by disease area, cancer appears to be the most significant and widely researched, followed by mental illness. Other conditions of relevance include heart attack, infectious diseases, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. 

Thirdly, we looked at fear-barrier prevalence. UK data is not strong here. One US study found 31% of adults claiming to have avoided a doctor visit they had deemed necessary; one-third (34%) of this group cited ‘fear of a serious illness’ as a key barrier. Patient response in one UK study indicated that fear barriers to help-seeking for the majority of cancers may cause around one-third (32%) of all conscious patient delay. Of course, the prevalence of fear barriers will vary by suspected disease or condition. 

FOFO is, first and foremost, a likely danger to the individual’s own health status. However, a person’s fear barrier may also present dangers to others. One literature review found that anywhere from 12-55% of people who undergo testing for HIV fail to return to learn whether they are infected. This example also shows how fear barriers are not confined to the same point of the patient journey. FOFO may manifest prior to any primary care contact, or following GP consultation and prior to hospital-based testing, or indeed following testing, with the avoidance of test results. In this respect, the influence of fear barriers on hospital outpatient non-attendance rates may be an important research area to inform primary care practitioners in their education and support of patients. 

In summary, evidence already makes clear that fear barriers can present a major obstacle to disease prevention and early intervention across a range of conditions. FOFO is, therefore, linked to reduced health-related quality of life and, given strong association with life-threatening disease, may lead to or hasten premature death. 

Regarding the public health response, we might note that many of the issues described above speak to the issue of health literacy. In its broadest definition, health literacy includes not just ‘knowledge’ and ‘capacity’ but the motivation to access, understand, appraise and apply health information. And this is important because though health literacy is strongly linked to literacy and educational attainment, it is clear that intelligent, highly literate people can lack motivation (self-discipline and self-efficacy) to make wise, healthy choices. 

It has been suggested that only 40% of the UK population are highly motivated to adopt healthy lifestyles, with the rest having more negative and fatalistic attitudes towards their health. A general comparison perhaps, but evidence suggests health promoters will in time need to convey FOFO-dispelling messages to a diverse population. Reducing fear barriers may be essential to tackling negative attitudes, promoting timely help-seeking, improving health outcomes and ultimately supporting greater equity of healthcare within the NHS.

FOR MORE INFORMATION

The ‘Fear of Finding Out: identifying psychological barriers to symptom presentation and diagnosis in the UK’ report can be accessed at:

W: www.2020health.org/2020health/Publications/Publications-2017/FOFO.html

Tell us what you think – have your say below or email opinion@nationalhealthexecutive.com

Comments

There are no comments. Why not be the first?

Add your comment

 

national health executive tv

more videos >

latest healthcare news

Winter pressures mounting as A&E attendances creep up by 4.4%

14/12/2017Winter pressures mounting as A&E attendances creep up by 4.4%

NHS England’s latest figures show that although the health service is responding well to growing pressure, it is close to “full stretch... more >
Kent trust appoints NHSI director as new chief executive

14/12/2017Kent trust appoints NHSI director as new chief executive

Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells (MTW) NHS Trust has appointed Miles Scott as its new chief executive. Scott joins the trust from his position ... more >
CCGs must move towards strategic commissioning to improve local care

14/12/2017CCGs must move towards strategic commissioning to improve local care

CCGs in the UK should move towards strategic commissioning if the healthcare system is to embrace a move toward integrated local care, claims a n... more >
681 149x260 NHE Subscribe button

the scalpel's daily blog

Ten lessons to support new care models locally

29/11/2017Ten lessons to support new care models locally

Anna Starling, policy fellow at the Health Foundation, offers the top 10 lessons for local leaders seeking to make systematic improvements across services, all based on first-hand accounts from vanguard officials. Redesigning health and social care services across traditional boundaries is not easy. Making change in complex environments, with differing professional viewpoints and varying organisational priorities while getting on with t... more >
read more blog posts from 'the scalpel' >

interviews

Cutting through the fake news

22/11/2017Cutting through the fake news

In an era of so-called ‘fake news’ growing alongside a renewed focus on reducing stigma around mental health, Paul Farmer, chief exec... more >
Tackling infection prevention locally

04/10/2017Tackling infection prevention locally

Dr Emma Burnett, a lecturer and researcher in infection prevention at the University of Dundee’s School of Nursing and Midwifery and a boar... more >
Scan4Safety: benefits across the whole supply chain

02/10/2017Scan4Safety: benefits across the whole supply chain

NHE interviews Gillian Fox, head of eProcurement (Scan4Safety) programme at NHS Supply Chain. How has the Scan4Safety initiative evolved sin... more >
Simon Stevens: A hunger for innovation

25/09/2017Simon Stevens: A hunger for innovation

Simon Stevens, chief executive of NHS England, knows that the health service is already a world leader when it comes to medical advances – ... more >

last word

The Refugee Doctor Initiative

The Refugee Doctor Initiative

Terry John, co-chair of the BMA & BDA Refugee Doctors and Dentists Liaison Group and chair of the union’s international committee, talks about a brilliant initiative that is proving mut... more > more last word articles >

editor's comment

25/09/2017A hotbed of innovation

This edition of NHE comes hot on the heels of this year’s NHS Expo which, once again, proved to be a huge success at Manchester Central. A number of announcements were made during the event, with the health secretary naming the second wave of NHS digital pioneers, or ‘fast followers’, which follow the initial global digital e... read more >

health service focus

Release full market value against surplus and decommissioned assets

28/11/2017Release full market value against surplus and decommissioned assets

Advertisement feature: Oliver Pearson, sal... more >
Operation Barcode: selecting technology to succeed

22/11/2017Operation Barcode: selecting technology to succeed

The benefits of Scan4Safety have been widely ... more >